Forty Million Dollar Slaves
By William C. Rhoden
From Jackie Robinson to Muhammad Ali and Arthur Ashe, African American athetes have been
at the center of modern culture, thier on-the-field heroics admired and their stratopheric earnings
envied. But for all their money, fame, achievement, says New York Times columnist William C. Rhoden,
black athetes still find themselves on the periphery of true power in the multibillion-dollar industry their talent built.
Provocative and controversial, Rhoden's $40 Million Slaves weaves a compelling narrative of black
athetes in the United States, from the plantation to their beginnings in nineteenth-century boxing rings to the history-accomplishments of
noptable figures such as Jesse Owens, Althea Gibson, and Willie Mays. Rhoden reveals that black athetes' "evolution" has merely been a
journey from literal plantations-where sports were introduced as diversions to quell revolutionary stirrings-to today's figurative ones, in the form
of collegiate and professional sports programs. He details the "conveyor belt" that brings kids from inner citites and small towns to big-time programs,
where they're cut off from their roots and exploited by team owners, sports agents, and the media. He also sets his sights on athetes like Michael Jordan,
who he says have abdicated their responsibility to the community with an apathy that borders on treason.
The power that black athetes have today is as limited as when masters forced their slaves to race and fight. The primary difference is,
today's shackles are often of the athetes' own making.
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